top of page

Brain Plasticity and Meditation

Author: Michel di Ponzio - Master's in Cognitive Neuroscience and Clinical Neuropsychology - Researcher




Beyond its age-old spiritual significance, meditation is now receiving widespread attention from the scientific community due to its profound impact on brain plasticity (Xiong & Doraiswamy, 2009). Neuroplasticity, often referred to as brain plasticity, is the brain's extraordinary ability to reorganize itself by forming new neural connections throughout life (Kolb & Whishaw, 1998).


While the precise mechanisms by which meditation affects the brain are still under investigation, its benefits are undeniable. Mindfulness practitioners demonstrate outstanding attentional control. Experienced mindfulness meditators show enhanced orienting, attentional processing efficiency, and executive attention (van der Hurk et al., 2010). Their heightened attentional capacity translates into the ability to focus intently on the present moment, minimizing mind-wandering and rumination (Brewer et al., 2011). Moreover, experienced meditators outperform their peers on cognitive tasks like the Stroop task, which measures the ability to suppress irrelevant information. Not only are these practitioners more adept at detecting errors, but they also exhibit diminished emotional reactivity to those errors (Teper & Inzlicht, 2013). This suggests that mindfulness training fosters increased emotional acceptance, leading to improved cognitive performance.


Pioneering research by Lazar et al. (2005) examined cortical thickness in long-term meditators. They discovered that these individuals had notably thicker regions, pointing to meditation's influence on specific brain areas associated with attention and sensory processing.


Further studies (Hölzel et al., 2008) delved into gray matter volume and concentration in regions activated during meditation. These studies identified changes in the left inferior temporal gyrus, right anterior insula, and the right hippocampus — areas crucial for emotional regulation and affective processing. Additionally, meditation promotes enhanced brain connectivity, especially in the anterior thalamic radiation and other essential pathways, suggesting a potential for meditation to amplify information integration (Luders et al., 2011).


Functional neuroimaging studies have revealed the brain regions active during meditation. The default mode network, activated when the mind drifts or ruminates, is subdued during mindfulness practice (Brewer et al., 2011). Mindfulness practitioners exhibit diminished activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), regions linked to self-referential thinking (Brewer et al., 2011). This reduction in default mode network activity underscores the ability of mindfulness practitioners to remain present and circumvent excessive self-referential processing. In cognitive tasks with negative distractions, these practitioners utilize the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) to inhibit amygdala activity, thus lessening emotional disturbance (Froelinger et al., 2012). This control over emotional responses exemplifies the influence of mindfulness on the brain's emotional regulation systems.


Another significant region, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), located deep within the brain's frontal lobe, is linked to a crucial skill: self-regulation. This skill encompasses directing attention and behavior, restraining impulsive reactions, and adeptly adapting strategies. Individuals with damaged ACC regions often exhibit impulsivity and unchecked aggression. Additionally, those with compromised connections between the ACC and other areas struggle to adjust their strategies to challenges, persistently adhering to ineffective solutions. Notably, meditators excel over non-meditators on self-regulation tests, displaying superior concentration and accuracy (Tang et al., 2010). Meditators also showcase heightened ACC activity (Tang et al., 2010). Beyond self-regulation, the ACC plays a role in learning from past experiences to make optimal decisions, a skill crucial in uncertain and rapidly changing environments.


Additionally, meditation elevates levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein vital for neuron health and promoting brain plasticity (Gomutbutra et al., 2020). Meditation may reinforce neuronal circuits and augment cognitive reserve, potentially boosting mental fitness and longevity. Meditation also impacts neurotransmitter levels in the brain, essential molecules for brain function and information exchange within neural networks. Specifically, meditation boosts GABA levels, enhancing our brain's inhibitory and regulatory capacities (Guglietti et al., 2013). GABA, a crucial neurotransmitter, is instrumental for plastic changes and the longevity of our brains.


In conclusion, the burgeoning body of research at the nexus of meditation and brain plasticity showcases the human brain's staggering potential for growth and adaptability. Through meditation, individuals can reshape their cognitive structures, bolster emotional resilience, and harness their inherent power to mold their minds. The practice of meditation beckons us to delve into the depths of our brain's potential, accessing a vast realm of possibilities that transcends our preconceived boundaries.



References:

  • Brewer, J. A., Worhunsky, P. D., Gray, J. R., Tang, Y. Y., Weber, J., & Kober, H. (2011). Meditation experience is associated with differences in default mode network activity and connectivity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(50), 20254-20259.

  • Froeliger, B. E., Garland, E. L., Modlin, L. A., & McClernon, F. J. (2012). Neurocognitive correlates of the effects of yoga meditation practice on emotion and cognition: a pilot study. Frontiers in integrative neuroscience, 6, 48.

  • Gomutbutra, P., Yingchankul, N., Chattipakorn, N., Chattipakorn, S., & Srisurapanont, M. (2020). The effect of mindfulness-based intervention on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF): a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. Frontiers in psychology, 11, 2209.

  • Guglietti, C. L., Daskalakis, Z. J., Radhu, N., Fitzgerald, P. B., & Ritvo, P. (2013). Meditation-related increases in GABAB modulated cortical inhibition. Brain stimulation, 6(3), 397-402.

  • Hölzel, B. K., Ott, U., Gard, T., Hempel, H., Weygandt, M., Morgen, K., & Vaitl, D. (2008). Investigation of mindfulness meditation practitioners with voxel-based morphometry. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience, 3(1), 55-61.

  • Kolb, B., & Whishaw, I. Q. (1998). Brain plasticity and behavior. Annual review of psychology, 49(1), 43-64.

  • Lazar, S. W., Kerr, C. E., Wasserman, R. H., Gray, J. R., Greve, D. N., Treadway, M. T., ... & Fischl, B. (2005). Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness. Neuroreport, 16(17), 1893.

  • Luders, E., Clark, K., Narr, K. L., & Toga, A. W. (2011). Enhanced brain connectivity in long-term meditation practitioners. Neuroimage, 57(4), 1308-1316.

  • Tang, Y. Y., Lu, Q., Geng, X., Stein, E. A., Yang, Y., & Posner, M. I. (2010). Short-term meditation induces white matter changes in the anterior cingulate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(35), 15649-15652.

  • Teper, R., & Inzlicht, M. (2013). Meditation, mindfulness and executive control: the importance of emotional acceptance and brain-based performance monitoring. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience, 8(1), 85-92.

  • van den Hurk, P. A., Giommi, F., Gielen, S. C., Speckens, A. E., & Barendregt, H. P. (2010). Greater efficiency in attentional processing related to mindfulness meditation. Quarterly journal of experimental psychology, 63(6), 1168-1180.

  • Xiong, G. L., & Doraiswamy, P. M. (2009). Does meditation enhance cognition and brain plasticity?. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1172, 63–69.



13 views0 comments

Comments


bottom of page